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Scientific Imaging of Cell Phone and Wi-Fi Radiation Exposures into the Human Body

Scientific Imaging of Cell Phone and Wi-Fi Radiation Absorption in the Human Body

Cell phones and other wireless devices emit microwaves, a type of non-ionizing radiation also referred to as radiofrequency radiation. When we are exposed to this radiation, it penetrates and is absorbed by our tissues. When government guidelines were developed 30 years ago, scientists had little understanding of just how deeply the radiation penetrates the body, and what anatomical features would absorb significant amounts of radiation. State of the art technology now allows scientists to model how this radiation interacts with human tissues.

Children are more vulnerable. According to the International Agency for the Research on Cancer:

“the average radio frequency radiation energy deposition for children exposed to mobile phone RF is two times higher in the brain and 10 times higher in the bone marrow of the skull, compared with mobile phone use by adults”.

(Read it on page 44 of the IARC Monograph on Radiofrequency Fields)

On this page we share scientific imaging developed using anatomically based models to calculate how radiofrequency radiation from various devices penetrates and is absorbed by our bodies. Environmental Health Trust works to support scientific researchers who are doing this critical work.

Fact: Children are more exposed to cell phone radiation.

Cell Phone and Wi-Fi Radiation

These animations show how deeply cell phone radiation is absorbed in a model of a 6 year old brain. The highest absorption is in the area closest to the phone.

Multiple research studies over the last two decades clearly show that a child’s brain absorbs radiation differently from an adult, with regions deeper in the child’s head absorbing higher doses than adults.

  • Children have smaller heads with a shorter distance to brain centers.
  • Children have smaller ears so that a cell phone on the ear will be closer to the skull than a cell phone placed to an adult’s larger ear (which acts as a spacer between the brain and phone).
  • Children’s skulls are thinner allowing radiation to penetrate deeper past the skull.
  • Children’s brains contain more fluid and less fat and more readily absorb microwave radiation (myelination of the brain is incomplete).
  • Compared with an adult skull, the immature skull contains more water, so the skull and adjacent tissues are more similar in a child than in an adult. This means that less radiation is reflected at the interfaces (greater reflection occurs at interfaces of less similar substances), so again, more radiation enters a child’s brain.
These images show cell phone radiation absorption into different brain slices. It is a graphic from Fernandez et al., (IEEE Access 2015).

Cell phone radiation penetrates into the brain .The animations of cell phone radiation into the brain are derived from the work of researchers Álvaro Augusto Almeida de Salles and Claudio Claudio Enrique Fernandez Rodriguez, engineers from the Electrical Engineering Department of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil (as seen in the video). The simulations were conducted using a sophisticated computer system that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) currently uses to evaluate medical devices- but not cell phones.

Click here to learn about how cell phone testing is not adequate to protect children.
The cell phone certification process is outdated and flawed.

Unfortunately, cell phone emissions are not tested with consideration of different aged users. The current cell phone certification process uses the Standard Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), a plastic head mannequin, based on the90th percentile of 1989 United States military recruits. The person that SAM models weighs about 220 lb and is 6 foot 2 inches in height.  In addition, this mannequin model is filled with a homogeneous liquid supposedly replicating the average electrical properties of the head, for the frequency being tested.

This outdated and flawed process underestimates exposure for any head smaller than the SAM model, and cannot simulate exposure to multiple frequencies as from modern devices with multiple antennae. Only 3% of the U.S. population has a head the size of SAM and no one has a uniformly consistent brain with dielectrically homogeneous tissue. Therefore, the existing cell phone certification process does not even address 97% of the population, i.e., those with heads smaller than SAM.

Utilizing anatomically correct modeling far superior method to understand cell phone radiation exposures and EHT, along with scientists worldwide recommend that this anatomically based testing be integrated into the cell phone and wireless device certification process so that all users are addressed. Please note that even for the 3% of people with heads as large as SAM,  the allowable cell phone radiation  levels are not safe as they do not protect the user from non thermal effects.

Click here to read more about the scientific imaging done by researchers Fernandez and DeSalles.
Absolute EMF absorption (SAR) is a bit greater in the child’s brain and the main reasons for this are the following:

  • The skull thickness in the child is smaller than in the adult; therefore proportionally higher EMF penetrates in the child’s brain;
  • The child skull has dielectric parameters (permittivity and equivalent conductivity) closer to the dielectric parameters of the brain (and the fat and the skin) in comparison to those of the adults; therefore the EMF reflection coefficient is smaller in children and the EMF transmission coefficient is greater in children in comparison to that in the adults; (in other words, better intrinsic impedance matching in the children);
  • The dielectric parameters (permittivity and equivalent conductivity) in the  children’s brains are greater in comparison to those in the adults brains (around 10 to 20 percent higher, please refer to the C. Gabriel and A. Peyman papers with pigs and rats); therefore greater SAR is estimated in the children’s brains;

A further reason for that (as already mentioned) can be that the same amount of energy being dissipated in a smaller head volume (e.g., in the child’s head) would result in a larger SAR, in comparison to a larger head (e.g., the adult’s head).

These results are explained in detail in our 2015 IEEE Access paper. Professor Om Gandhi has described similar results in previous papers as well.

These images are from Om Gandhi’s groundbreaking 1996 research showed that 5-year-old and 10-year-old children have higher psSARs (peak spatial specific absorption rate) than adults. Later studies by Gandhi and Kang 2002 and from senior scientists with the French Telecommunications corporation Orange (Wiart et al., 2008 confirming and extending these findings) were cited by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO IARC) Monograph on Radio Frequency Fields published in 2013, classifying cell phone and wireless radiation as a Class 2B Possible Human Carcinogen. The body of research has grown as research techniques have become more sophisticated.
Watch Dr. Gandhi share his research showing children receive higher cell phone radiation exposures than adults in his testimony to Maine Legislators in 2010.
“It is a fact that humans of all sizes and ages from children to older individuals are using cell phones, and testing for compliance testing for a 220 lb., 6 feet 2 inch tall adult male underestimates the actual energy absorbed by up to a factor of two, thus releasing into the market telephones that would not pass if a proper safety compliance testing method was used.”Dr. Om P. Gandhi Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering in his FCC Submission
Click here to read the scientific studies that show children are more exposed to cell phone radiation than adults.
Fernandez-Rodriguez, C.E.; De Salles, A.A.A.; Davis, D.L., “Dosimetric Simulations of Brain Absorption of Mobile Phone Radiation–The Relationship Between psSAR and Age,” in Access, IEEE , vol.3, no., pp.2425-2430, 2015 doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2502900

  • A young child’s skull is not only smaller and thinner than an adult’s, but also has dielectric characteristics closer to those of soft tissues, probably due to a higher water content. The young skull better matches the electromagnetic characteristics of the skin and brain. As a result, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations confirm field penetration and higher specific absorption rate (SAR) in deeper structures in the young brain.
  • If the peak spatial SAR (psSAR) is modeled in the entire head, as current testing standards recommend, the results for adults and children are equivalent.
  • Our anatomically based evaluations rely on FDTD simulations of different tissues within the brain and confirm that the psSAR in a child’s brain is higher than in an adult’s brain.

Gandhi OP, Morgan LL, De Salles AA, Han YY, Herberman RB, Davis DL. (2012). Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. Electromagn Biol Med. 31(1), 3451.

  • The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the “guidelines” of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency.
  • Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child’s head’s absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull’s bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. T
  • herefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups.

Redmayne M, Johansson O. Radiofrequency exposure in young and old: different sensitivities in light of age-relevant natural differences. Rev Environ Health. 2015 Dec 1;30(4):323-35. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0030.

  • First, we identified the literature which has explored age-specific pathophysiological impacts of RF-EMR. Natural life-span changes relevant to these different impacts provides context for our review of the selected literature, followed by discussion of health and well-being implications.
  • We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy.

Gandhi, Om. Yes the Children are more exposed to radio-frequency energy from mobile telephones than adults. IEEE Spectrum. PP(99):1. Jun 23, 2015.

  • In this paper we present arguments based on Physics that the main reason for higher exposure of children (also women and men with smaller heads and likely thinner pinnae) to radiofrequency energy from mobile phones is the closer placement of the cell phone radiation source by several millimeters to the tissues of the head, e.g. the brain. Using heterogeneous anatomically-derived shaped models of the head, we have previously reported that the exposure increases by a compounding rate of 10-15% for every single millimeter of closer location of the radiating antenna.

Christ A, Gosselin MC, Christopoulou M, Kühn S, Kuster N. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users. Phys Med Biol. 55(7):1767-1783, 2010.

  • The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

de Salles, A. A., Bulla, G., Rodriguez, C. E. (2006). Electromagnetic absorption in the head of adults and children due to mobile phone operation close to the head. Electromagn. Biol. Med 25(4):349–360.

  • The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) produced by mobile phones in the head of adults and children is simulated using an algorithm based on the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Realistic models of the child and adult head are used. The electromagnetic parameters are fitted to these models. Comparison also are made with the SAR calculated in the children model when using adult human electromagnetic parameters values. Microstrip (or patch) antennas and quarter wavelength monopole antennas are used in the simulations. The frequencies used to feed the antennas are 1850 MHz and 850 MHz. The SAR results are compared with the available international recommendations. It is shown that under similar conditions, the 1g-SAR calculated for children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10-year old child model, SAR values higher than 60% than those for adults are obtained.
  1. Wiart, A. Hadjem, M.F. Wang and I. Bloch, “Analysis of RF exposure in the head tissues of children and adults” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol.53, pp. 3681-3695, 2008
  • Abstract: This paper analyzes the radio frequencies (RF) exposure in the head tissues of children using a cellular handset or RF sources (a dipole and a generic handset) at 900, 1800, 2100 and 2400 MHz. Based on magnetic resonance imaging, child head models have been developed. The maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) over 10 g in the head has been analyzed in seven child and six adult heterogeneous head models. The influence of the variability in the same age class is carried out using models based on a morphing technique. The SAR over 1 g in specific tissues has also been assessed in the different types of child and adult head models. Comparisons are performed but nevertheless need to be confirmed since they have been derived from data sets of limited size. The simulations that have been performed show that the differences between the maximum SAR over 10 g estimated in the head models of the adults and the ones of the children are small compared to the standard deviations. But they indicate that the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues of the child models aged between 5 and 8 years is about two times higher than in adult models. This difference is not observed for the child models of children above 8 years old: the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues is about the same as the one in adult models. Such differences can be explained by the lower thicknesses of pinna, skin and skull of the younger child models.

Kühn S, Jennings W, Christ A, Kuster N. Assessment of induced radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in various anatomical human body models. Phys Med Biol. 54(4):875-890, 2009.

  • The reference levels for testing compliance of human exposure with radio-frequency (RF) safety limits have been derived from very simplified models of the human. In order to validate these findings for anatomical models, we investigated the absorption characteristics for various anatomies ranging from 6 year old child to large adult male by numerical modeling. We address the exposure to plane-waves incident from all major six sides of the humans with two orthogonal polarizations each. Worst-case scattered field exposure scenarios have been constructed in order to test the implemented procedures of current in situ compliance measurement standards (spatial averaging versus peak search). Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised.

A Peyman, C Gabriel, E H Grant, G Vermeeren, L Martens, “Variation of the dielectric properties of tissues with age: the effect on the values of SAR in children when exposed to walkie–talkie devices,” Phys. Med. Biol, vol. 54, pp. 227–241, 2009.


  • The results show statistically significant reduction with age in both permittivity and conductivity of 10 out of 15 measured tissues. At microwave frequencies, the observed variations are mainly due to the reduction in the water content of tissues as an animal ages.


Tablets: How far does the radiation from a tablet penetrate into a child’s brain?

A recent paper shows the WiFi radiation absorption into a child’s head from a tablet at roughly 6 inches (specifically 150mm away from the face) from a tablet. Please take a look at the image below. The highest radiation levels are shown in white yellow and red.

Cell Phone and Wi-Fi Radiation
This image comes from the 2015 paper entitled, “Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet users” and is authored by Juliana Borges Ferreira and Álvaro Augusto Almeida de Salles of the Electrical Engineering Department of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

  • A tablet, including the antenna and the box, was simulated at 2.45 GHz assuming 30 mW normalized radiated power and the distance between the eye lens of the head models and the tablet was 150 mm. The SAR in the head models is estimated in each situation of exposure.
  • This research shows higher values in the anatomically correct child model. “For 1 g psSAR the child heterogeneous model shows higher values in comparison to the SAM model.”
Click here to read more from the paper.
 “Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet user’s” and is authored by Juliana Borges Ferreira and Álvaro Augusto Almeida de Salles of the Electrical Engineering Department of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. The authors conclude in their paper that:

  • “According to these simulations, in 1g volume the SAM is not conservative. It is recommended that the existing mobile devices certification process should be complemented with an FDTD computer simulation process using anatomically based models, including those representative of children, measuring the SAR, averaged over smaller volumes and in different tissues. Then certification should be approved only if all tests result in psSAR below the recommended limits.
  • “The psSAR simulations in heterogeneous models (adult and child) show higher levels in the children model. The possible reasons for the higher SAR estimated in the child head model compared with adult model can be due to different reasons (e.g. thinner skull, higher dielectric parameters, smaller dimensions, etc.).”
  • “It is very important to remark that the recommendations and the standards usually adopted in different countries only consider the health effects of short time of exposure. Adults, adolescents and children may use these devices for many hours a day, many days a week and many weeks each year. Then these exposures should be reduced in order to reduce the health risks and the standards should be revised again since the last review was many years ago.”

Abstract: Wireless communication devices such as tablets are increasing and developing rapidly. The effects of the electromagnetic (EM) waves in the human body from the wireless communication devices have been paid attention. It is well known that the absorption of electromagnetic waves on the human head for a certain period of time may lead to health problems such as headaches, or even worse, significantly increased risk of brain cancer. In this paper, the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of tablet users is simulated for three different head models and compared with available international recommendations. The models used are the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) and two realistic models of human head (a 34 years old adult and a 6 years old child). The simulations were performed using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and the frequency used to feed the antenna was 2.45 GHz. All the results are below the safety recommendations set up by the International Commission Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Federal Communications Committee (FCC). Among the heterogeneous models, the highest peak spatial Specific Absorption Rate (psSAR) values are estimated for the children. For 1 g psSAR the child heterogeneous model shows highest value in comparison to the SAM model. 

In short, the current regulations for bringing these devices onto the market should be updated to include radiation modeling that considers children’s unique characteristics. The radiation from a tablet penetrates into a children’s skull, eyes and brain when positioned in front of the face as children typically do during use. Additionally, the penetration into the abdomen and chest when a tablet is rested on the lap is critical research that still needs to be done in order to fully understand exposures.


Read more about this paper here

“SAR simulations of EMF exposure due to tablet operation close to the user’s body.

This paper shows an analysis of the interaction of the electromagnetic field generated by a tablet with three different models of human heads: a homogeneous model Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) and two heterogeneous models: an adult man and a child. The assessing dosimetric parameters used are the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) computed by SEMCAD X. The distance between the tablet and the head models varies from 50 mm to 200 mm. The SAR decreases with the distance.

You can find this paper published in the Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference on the IEEE website here.  The authors conclude in their paper that, “These devices may be used for many hours each day by adults, adolescents and children, several days a week, and many months each year. Therefore, special precautionary procedures should be taken in order to avoid health risks due to long periods of exposure.”  

Laptops: What areas of the body receive Wi-fi radiation from a laptop?
The radiation from a laptop penetrates the body differently depending on several factors such as the distance of the antenna to the body, the location of the transmitter on the device, the duty factor and the several other variables. Usually, the closer the transmitting antennae, the great the penetration and the higher the absorbed dose in tissues.
PsSAR simulation in adult laptop Lap 2015

Click on image to enlarge

Simulation of psSAR associated with the use of laptop computers as a function of position in relation to the adult body by Sergio M Racini, Alvaro de Salles, Sergio LS Severo, Johan LT Garzon, Robert D. Morris & Devra Davis. This image is from research performed at the Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Download the BioEM2015 Poster Laptop psSAR.pdf 

PsSAR simulation in adult laptop chest 2015

Click on image to enlarge

In this image, the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is estimated in the body of a seated 34 year old male exposed to 2.4 GHz electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by a laptop. The body model used is a 34 year old anatomically correct male adult named Duke. The results are presented in terms of peak spatial SAR (psSAR) within 1g and 10g of tissue. In the major part of the simulations, the psSAR were below the recommended exposure limits. However, parts of the body closest to the antennas, such as hands, lap and chest absorb higher doses of EMF energy, especially at situation ‘1’, when the laptop is directly on the lap (0 cm). In this case the 10g psSAR was elevated. 
Wearables: Google Glass and Bluetooth Radiation

Click on image to enlarge

Google Glass and Bluetooth emit radiofrequency radiation, in close proximity to the head and brain. One concern that researchers have raised is that body worn technology results in ongoing exposures to vulnerable areas. The eye and brain are the most vulnerable areas.

These SAR simulations with laptops and with wearable devices (such as the Google glass) were presented in the 2015 BioEM conference in California. This research used anatomically correct models to understand how the radiation was absorbed into human tissues. 

BioEM 2015 Yuli Poster

Click on image to enlarge

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) simulations in eyewear and Bluetooth communicating devices operating close to the user’s head. JPEG of Poster,  Download the Poster Presentation here.

Please take a look at the published paper Specific Absorption Rate SAR in the head of Google glasses and Bluetooth users doc. This paper was presented in the 2014 IEEE Latincom Conference, held in Cartagena, Colombia, in Nov/2014. Read Specific absorption rate (SAR) in the head of Google glasses and Bluetooth user’s online at the journal IEEE here. This paper simulated the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for three different head models and compared results with international recommendations.  The simulations were performed using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and the frequency used to feed the antennas was 2.45 GHz. 

Pregnancy: How much radiation does a fetus absorb when a cell phone is near a pregnant woman’s abdomen?
 Pregnancy-SAR-ImageClick on image to enlarge
To assess the exposure of the fetus, Nicolas Chavannes and Andreas Christ developed computer models of women in different stages of pregnancy which incorporated the different tissue dielectric characteristics. Highly detailed anatomical computer models of a woman for three different gestational stages (month 3, 7 and 9 of pregnancy) were developed. The models consist of approximately 80 different tissue types in the mother and up to 17 different tissues in the foetus (e.g., bone, subcutaneous tissue or skin) enabling the most accurate research currently available.

One of their findings was that occupational exposure limits are too high for pregnant women and that some product standards (induction cooker hobs) must be revised, since they may lead to excessive SAR levels in the foetus. In Quantification of RF-Exposure of the Fetus Using Anatomical CAD-Models in Three Different Gestational Stages by Cabot et al (2014) researchers found that for plane wave exposure at occupational levels, the whole body SAR in the fetus can exceed the basic restrictions for the general population by at least 1.8 dB, and in the near-field of professional devices, the 10 g SAR can be non-compliant with the product standard for the general public by > 3.5 dB. 

Click to hear to read about a study that considered pregnant women’s exposures to electrical fields and found that ICNIRP guidelines could be exceeded.

  • Only a few studies have been devoted to the investigation of the compliance in pregnant women(1720) Therefore, until now, there have been no studies in literature that assess the compliance of pregnant women exposed to MF at 50 Hz with both the European Recommendation 1999(2) and the Directive 2013(3)
  • This study aimed to assess the compliance of pregnant women to the current regulations, when exposed to uniform MF at 50 Hz (100 μT for EU Recommendation and 1 and 6 mT for EU Directive). For general public, exposure of pregnant women and fetus always resulted in compliance with EU Recommendation. For occupational exposures, (1) Electric fields in pregnant women were in compliance with the Directive, with exposure variations due to fetal posture of <10 %, (2) electric fields in fetuses are lower than the occupational limits, with exposure variations due to fetal posture of >40 % in head tissues, (3) Electric fields in fetal CNS tissues of head are above the ICNIRP 2010 limits for general public at 1 mT (in 7 and 9 months gestational age) and at 6 mT (in all gestational ages).
  • “In this case, for all the exposure scenarios at 9 months of GA, the Jpeak was always found to be higher than the limit of the Recommendation (Figure 2) in some tissues, which do not belong to the CNS tissues of head and trunk (Table 5), where the stimulation due to ELF-MF exposure could occur.”
  • “The comparison of the fetal-induced electric fields to the basic restriction of the ICNIRP Guidelines 2010(1) for the general public shows that E99th values in the fetal CNS tissues of the head were higher than the limits and therefore not intrinsically compliant with these safety recommendation at 1 mT in 7 and 9 months of GA and at 6 mT in all GAs (Figure 7).”
What is the “anatomically correct” Virtual Family?
Click on image to enlarge
The Virtual Family models – Ella, Duke, Billie, and Thelonious are computerized whole-body anatomical human models. The human body consists of different tissues from the bones to the skin to veins and organs. Radiation moves through each of these organs and tissues at a different pace because of the density and unique composition of each tissue. The Virtual Family has approximately 300 different organs and tissues. They were originally developed for electromagnetic exposure evaluations. The Virtual Family models are DUKE: 34-year-old male, ELLA: 26-year-old female, BILLIE: 11-year-old female and THELONIOUS: 6-year-old male.

The Virtual Family V2.0 models consist of simplified CAD files optimized for finite-element modeling in third-party commercial platforms such as ANSYS and CST. For the purpose of simplification, the approximately 300 organs and tissues of version 3.0 are combined into 22 high-resolution tissue groups.

The family has been expanded into the Virtual Population with several other models such as pregnant women, people of larger stature and teenagers.

Click here for more information on the Virtual Family

FDA Website on the Virtual Family

The Comprehensive ITIS Site on the Virtual Family

FDA Statement: Jeffrey Shuren, MD, JD, Director of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) testified before the US Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (HELP) Committee at a hearing on “Continuing America’s Leadership: The Future of Medical Innovation for Patients” on April 28, 2015. Dr. Shuren described the virtual family in his written statement. He stated how the highly detailed, anatomically correct, whole-body Virtual Family (VF) models  were developed in a collaboration led by the IT’IS Foundation and the FDA – for electromagnetic, thermal, acoustic, and computational fluid dynamics simulations that could be used to supplement or even replace data from clinical investigations of new devices.

Read Development of a New Generation of High-Resolution Anatomical Models for Medical Device Evaluation: The Virtual Population 3.0

Website on the ITIS Virtual Population

Meet The Scientists Behind the Research
Dr. Om Gandhi

Dr. Om Gandhi, a pioneering researcher in EMF exposure, explains why the recent rapid increases in wireless devices have made existing US EMF exposure ‘guidelines’ dangerously outdated.

Professor Alvaro Augusto de Salles

On Reducing Cell Phone Risks

Professor Alvaro Augusto de Salles

Antennas and Health Risks 

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